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The simplest example

Whats the main difference between callback-based functions and promise-based functions?

The first call the callback with the error and the result:

fs.readFile(path, function(error, content) {
    // handle error or do something with content

The second return promises. We can attach two callbacks - one for the value, another to handle the error:

fs.readFileAsync(path).done(function(content) {
    // do something with content
}, function(error) {
    // handle error


Whats going on here?

fs.readFileAsync(file) starts a file reading operation. That operation is not yet complete at the point when readFile returns. This means we can't return the file content.

But we can still return something: we can return the reading operation itself. And that operation is represented by a promise.

It's is sort of like a single-value stream:

net.connect(port).on('data', function(res) { 
}).on('error', function(err) { 

But there are also some important differences which are going to be covered later on.